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Contents of part C

C1.Community added value to EU policies
C1.1 The European dimension of the problem
C1.2 The European added value
C1.3 Contribution to EU policy

C2.Contribution to Community social objectives

C3. Project management

C4. Description of consortium

C5.Description of participants

C6. Economic development and scientific and technological prospects
C6.1 Exploitation
C6.2 Strategic impact
C6.3. Dissemination

C1.Community added value to EU policies

CLIVRE aims to respond to current and emerging needs for scientific information concearning climate-driven socio-economic problems at a regional level. The regionally-orientated and interdisciplinary approach of  the proposed project is designed  to assemble, assess and synthesis the results of science for the direct benefit of  society by providing advisors, planners and policy-makers with the information necessary to promote sound management and policy practices.   

C1.1 The European dimension of the problem

Acting alone countries can't respond to the threat of rapid changes in the climate system to secure better livelihoods for people. CLIVRE ensures a regional  integration and synthesis across coupled climate/socio-economic problems in Europe through the active collaboration between scientists from Sweden, Hungary and Romania. CLIVRE analyses climate impacts  relevant to socio-economic activities in different European areas to build a coherent methodology effective at European level. Due to the fact that CLIVRE objectives and expected results can contribute to configure optimally the interface between science and decision making the proposed project has the European dimension on both scientific and political level.   

C1.2 The European added value

The coupling of climate variability effects on environmental change with socio-economical problems could be an useful approach to the sustainable development in many regions.

C1.3 Contribution to EU policy

European decision makers and general public are very concerned about emission policies. The present proposal will contribute to improve scientific knowledge needed to implement Kyoto protocols. with specific regard to economic transition processes in East and Central Europe. 

C2.Contribution to Community social objectives

The present proposal approach try to couple the climate variability and change effects to social and economical problems. Diagnosis and prediction of climate driven socio-economic effects in sensitive areas provide tools to safeguard and improve safety, health and quality of life in the sustainable development perspective. 

C3. Project management

The present proposal join in a multidisciplinary approach the efforts of various specialists from 3 different countrys. That is way we have chosen a horizontal type of structure which allow a network type for the information flow (see figure 1). 

There is a number of risks in dealing with administrative and managerial problems, due to the fact that the co-ordinator palys this role for the first time in a Framework Programme of the European Commission but his past participation in the Fourth Framework Programme and his experience as a scientific manager of NIMH will contribute to minimise the risks.

a) General Management

Figure 1 The structure of CLIVRE representing the main information flow within the project.

Decision making structures, communication flow within the consortium, …

b) Project Coordinator and Project Manager

c) Detailed Project Management Techniques

Monitoring Progress:

A report will be obtained by the co-ordinator from each partner on a regular basis, according to the schedule of the tasks, at least one report in four months. A summary of the reports will be provided by the co-ordinator at the project-wide meet-ings.

d) Quality Management

Evaluation of Quality:

The quality of the results and the deliverables of the project will be evaluated in two steps. The first review will be done by the leader of the according task, the second review will be done by the management committee. The managementcommittee can delegate the second review to one member of the committee different to the task leader or to an external referee.

e) Contracts, Deliverables and Consortium Meetings

C4. Description of consortium

The consortium consist of  a manager co-ordinator and a management committee (from the participants in the project). The committee will meet immediately before or after a project-wide workshop.

Each member of the management committee will be responsible for one thematic field within the project and will lead according tasks defined in the work-packages.

Each committee member is therefore responsible for the schedule plan and the co-operation within the assigned tasks. The overall co-ordinator is responsible for the global schedule and the project-wide workshops. Task group meetings will be organised by the according leader of the task. The members of the committee will be:....

The terms of reference of the committee will be:

– assistance of the co-ordinator in the management of the project

– co-ordination of resources, budget and tasks between the partners to ensure that the goals of the project will be reached in time

– evaluation of results and deliverables with respect to quality and content

– evaluation of co-operation of the partners inside of the tasks and project-wide.

Each partner will nominate one contact person. This person will be responsible to the co-ordinator and the committee for the performance of the partner's con-tributions to the workpackages.

The parteners:


Institution/ Researchers





Roxana Bojariu

Sos. Bucuresti-Ploiesti 97, 71552, Bucharest Romania

Fax +40 1 230 31 43

Climate variability and predictability



Dinu Gavrilescu

Calea 13 Septembrie No. 13, Casa Academiei, C.P 1-789, Sectorul 5, cod. 76117, Bucharest, ROMANIA,

Phone / Fax: +(40-1)410. 07.76,


socio- economic issues




Deliang Chen

Department of Earth Science, 413 81 Goeteborg University, Sweden

Phone +46 31 773 19 51

Fax: +46 31 773 19 86


Climate variability and statistical downscaling




Per Lindskog

Departament of Geography
The Tema Institute, Linkoeping University, Sweden

Phone +46 13 28 10 00

Fax: +46 13 13 36 30


socio-economic issues



Karoly Tar

Department of Meteorology, Egyetem ter 1 4010 Debrecen, Hungary

Phone +36 52 512 927

Fax +36 52 512 927


Climate variability




Laszlo Makra

Egyetem u. 2., 6720 Szeged, Hungary

Tel.: 36-62-454-000 / 3174/ 3055

Climate variability and environmental change




Socio-economic issues

to be updated...

...NIMH, IEA, 

The University of Gothenburg will be involved in the design of statistical transfer functions to estimate the high resolution regional climate variables needed for the project. Their field of expertise is the estimation of the impact of  large-scale circulation patterns in Scandinavia, which is a very similar problem to their task proposed in this project.

Dr Lindskog and colleagues from the University of Linkoeping will together provide  a broad and comprehensive view of the human dimensions of climate change.


C5.Description of participants


1. National Instiutute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bucharest, Romania

The National Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Water Management (NIMH) is performing a wide range of activities in the field of reserch-development and operational services (, such as:

In NIMH are working presently 142 researchers from which 21 % are Ph.D.-s. Five senior scientists working in NIMH are also Associated Professors to several Universities from Romania. Thirty PhD students are preparing their Ph.D. thesis. Since 1991 NIMH has participated at more than 15 international projects in the 4th Framework Programme of European Commission (PECO and PHARE Programmes). The specialists from NIMH have been also involved in projects supported by the NATO Science Programme and Environmental Protection Agency of USA (US Country Study). The NIMH scientists have carried out joint research activities with European scientists in important research centers such as: Meteo-France, MPI, Hadley Center, Hydrophysiscs GKSS, LEGOS, CNES/CNRS, Toulouse, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Paris, Joint Research Center, Ispra.

NIMH is a legal entity directly subordinated to the Ministry of Water, Forests and Environmental protection. NIMH is funded from the public budget and is working on contract basis too. NIMH is equipped with the necessary modern electronic and communication equipment (workstations and personal computers linked in a Novell network , adequate software, printers, scanner, copy machine, phones, fax, Internet link).

Roxana Bojariu born on 1962 graduated Faculty of Physiscs, Bucharest University, in 1984. Since 1995 she is a senior scientific researcher at the Dynamicl Meteorology and Climatology Research Division. In 1999 she became PhD in Geophysics (Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest). She has scientifically co-ordinated several research projects in the field of climate variability and predictability. Dr. Bojariu has participated in two projects of the Forth Framework (Go West Fellowship/PECO and Human Capital and Mobility/PECO-"Integration of remote sensing, in situ observation and modelling of North East Atlantic" ). Dr. Bojariu is the co-ordinator of CLIVAR activities in Romania. Dr. Bojariu was visiting scientist at Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (1996) and LEGOS/GRGS, Toulose (1997,1998).Reference List

Adriana Marica born on 1949 is graduated Agricultural Faculty in 1972. Since 1996 she is a senior scientific researcher in the Agrometeorological Laboratory. She has participated at international project and collaboration such as EC - CROPCHANGE Project - PL 910121: "Adaptation of arable crops and perennial vegetation to a changing climate", AB-DLO WAGENINGEN, the NETHERLANDS, financed by the European Commission; Adriana Marica was scientific manager for Romanian Agriculture Sector within U.S. COUNTRY STUDY CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAM, Element 2: Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Techniques, financed by the Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C.(1995-1997).

Selected relevant references:

Bojariu R., 1992: Air temperature over Europe associated to certain oscillating type atmospheric phenomena, Meteorology and Hydrology, 22, 29-32.

Bojariu, R., R. Cotariu,1996: Seasonal effects of Atlantic air-sea interaction on climate fluctuations over southern and central Europe, Romanian Journal of Meteorology, vol. 3, 1, 1-7.

Bojariu, R., 1997: Climate variability modes due to ocean-atmosphere interaction in the central Atlantic. Tellus, 49A, 362-370.

Bojariu,R., 1998: Predictive Potential of North Atlantic Oscillation. Extended Abstracts of 2nd European Conference on Applied Climatology,19 to 23 October, Vienna, Austria, Oesterreichische Beitraege zu Meteorologie und Geophysik. Nr. 19.

Stephenson, D., V. Pavan, R. Bojariu, 2000: Is the North Atlantic Oscillation a random walk? Accepted in International Journal of Climatology.

Principal contractor 2

2. The Institute for agricultural economics, Bucharest, Romania (IEA)

The institute for agricultural economics (IAE) is performing a wide range of activities in the field of agrifood economics, such as: specialty researches, specialty consultancy and training activities. Specialty studies are performed under several major research programmes:

  1. agrifood macroeconomics: markets;
  2. agrifood microeconomics: farm restructuring alternatives and farms; management;
  3. rural sociology and integrated rural development: private agricultural households surveys, agricultural labor analysis, rural development.

Specialty consultancy is performed for the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, different governmental and non-governmental organisations (NGO's):

  1. policy analysis;
  2. feasibility studies;
  3. participation in international research projects funded by EU: Phare - ACE (P96-6090-R), Tacis, Copernicus, Cost (IS143), Tempus, CIPA (CT924039).
  4. participation as experts in national and international multidisciplinary teams and organisations (World Bank, OECD);
  5. scientific collaboration with Universities and research institutes in the country and abroad (Wye College - University of London, the Mediteranean Agronomic Institute of Chania, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, IAC Wageningen).

Training activities are performed at three levels:

  1. professors coordinating Ph.D thesis;
  2. senior researchers performing teaching activities: courses in Universities for students and post-graduates; training courses for National Agency for Agricultural Consultancy (Extension);
  3. research staff training: young researchers preparing their Ph.D. thesis, inter-academic exchanges (visits abroad), attending training courses and winning scholarships.

The main editorial output of results is made by publishing books, articles, papers and studies in speciality magazines, and organising national and international Seminars, Workshops, Conferences etc. The Institute published in 1997-1998 the main speciality books in the field in Romania: "Agrifood economy", "Agriculture restructuring and rural transition", "Local rural economies" as well as other main scientific outputs, etc. In 1998 we elaborated together with the Ministry of Agriculture and Food: the 1997 Annual Report.

In IAE are working presently 40 researchers (38 years old - average age); 23% are Ph.D.-s, another 40% are preparing their Ph.D. thesis. The staff is well trained, enthousiastic and able to adapt rapidly to the economic environment evolutions and requirements. IAE is a legal entity directly subordinated to the Romanian Academy; it is funded from the public budget and is working on contract basis too. IAE is located in the center of Bucharest, in a new office building. It has a new and good infrastructure, important and flexible spaces (about 700 square meters), suitable for study, research, documentation, but also for training, meetings, presentations, workshops etc. IAE is equipped with the necessary modern electronic and communication equipment (computers + adequate software, printers, scanner, copy machine, phones, fax, Internet link).

Dinu Gavrilescu, born on 15 December 1939, in Bucharest, is currently director of the IAE. He graduated the Agricultural Institute in Bucharest in 1964 and the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest, in 1976. He has a PhD in Economics. Since 1997 Dinu Gavrilescu is Professor in Agrifood Economics and PhD supervisor. He was a FAO expert at Statistical Division from 1990 to 1991 and liaison officier for Romania of the International Association of Agricultural and Food Economy, AIEA, in 1992. Dinu Gavrilescu was minister of  Agriculture and Food from December 1996 to December 1998. Prof. Dr. Dinu Gavrilescu has participated in several European projects such as Phare ACE project "Farm Restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe: Causes, Efficiency and Policy Implications" (1997-May 31, 1999) and  "Agricultural Price Reform Under Transition in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia", Phare ACE Programme under the 94-0602-R (1994-1997).

Selected relevant references:

Gavrilescu, D. and all, 1997: Agriculture Restructuring & Rural Transition in Romania, Coresi Ltd, Bucharest, Romania.

Toma, L., 1999: Country Report on the Present Environmental Situation in Romanian Agriculture", proceedings of the FAO Workshop "Central and Eastern European Sustainable Agriculture Network", Budapest, Hungary.

Luiza Toma's CV and Reference List.....

Principal contractor 3 :

Göteborg University, Sweden (UGOT)

The Department of Earth Sciences at the Göteborg University in Sweden consists of four divisions including Oceanography, Physical Geography, Marine Geology and Geology. Totally there are about 120 staffs. The Regional Climate Group that will participate in the current project is within the Laboratory of Climatology led by Prof. Sven Lindqvist, Prof. Deliang Chen and Associate Prof. Torbjörn Gustavsson. The Laboratory has nine Ph.D. level research staffs, 11 Ph.D. students and one technician. The laboratory has been doing researches on local and regional climates in Sweden over last 20 years.

The Regional Climate Group led by Prof. Deliang Chen is one of the three groups in the Laboratory (for details: There are currently three Ph.D. level scientists and two Ph.D. students working for the group. This group focuses on regional climate studies in Sweden (e.g. Chen and Hellström, 1999). The group has being involved in SWECLIM (Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Program) since 1997 and is responsible for the statistical downscaling for the project. The main research area of the group is the regional climate analysis using statistical techniques and local climate studies involving measurement and modelling. The group has been experiencing an expansion since 1999, mainly through a strategical investment on atmospheric sciences related to environmental researches by the Göteborg University.

Contributing persons: Deliang Chen + Katarina Borne + Cecilia Hellström.

Dr. Deliang Chen is a Professor in Physical Meteorology at Göteborg University. Throughout more than 20 years of research in multi-disciplinary institutes for atmospheric, hydrological and oceanographic studies (MPI in Mainz, Meteorological Institute in Cologne, AWI in Bremberhaven), he has developed expertise in modelling of various subsystems in the climate system and in data processing, programming, and statistical analysis of meteorological and climatological data (e.g. Chen, 1999). It was him who established the Regional Climate Group in Göteborg a few years ago. He is the Principal Investigator of the statistical downscaling part in a national program SWECLIM (SWEdish regional CLIMate modelling) which focuses on modelling and prediction of regional climate in Sweden.

Dr. Katarina Borne has been working on local wind and climate along the Swedish West Coast since 1992. Her thesis involves analysis of observational data and theoretical models as well as statistical analysis of the sea-land-breeze climatologies (Borne et al., 1998). After the graduation she worked first as a postdoc at the Regional Climate Group in Göteborg on UV radiation in Antarctic. Then she was awarded a scholarship (Wenner-Gren scholar) to work with Ass. Prof. Sue Grimmond at Indiana University, USA. This work deals with ecosystem in urban environments using simple non-linear and multi-dimensional models and meteorological and ecological parameters. She has experience in field studies, measuring techniques, programming and statistical analysis of meteorological data.

Cecilia Hellström is a climatologist specialised in regional climate analysis (e.g. Chen and Hellström, 1999) and statistical downscaling. She was graduated with a Master degree from the Climate Research Unit, University of Norwich, UK. In the last three years she has been involved in studying climate variability and change in Sweden.

Selected relevant references:

Borne, K., D. Chen and M. Nunez, 1998: A method for finding sea breeze days under

stable synoptic conditions and its application to the Swedish wets coast, Int. J.

Climatology, Vol. 18, 901-914.

Busuioc, A., C. Hellström, and D. Chen, 1999: Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in Sweden over the 1890-1990 interval, Report C19, Earth Sciences Centre, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, 46 pp.

Chen, D., 1995: A residual circulation derived from an energy balance climate model, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, No. D10, 21137-21145.

Chen, D, R. Gerdes, and G. Lohmann, 1995: A 1-D Atmospheric energy balance model developed for ocean modelling, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 51, 25-38.

Chen, D. and M. Nunez, 1998: Temporal and spatial variability of total ozone in southwest Sweden revealed by two ground-based instruments, Int. J. Climatology, Vol. 18, 1237-1246.

Chen, D. 1999: A Synoptic Climatology based on the Lamb classification for Sweden and its application to winter temperature study, , Int. J. Climatology, (in press).

Hellström, C. And D. Chen, 1999: A 10´ 10 km dataset of monthly temperature normals (1961-90) for Sweden, in ‘Preliminary analysis and statistical downscaling of monthly temperature in Sweden’ Chen et al., Report C16, Earth Sciences Centre, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, 1-10.

Lindkvist, L. and D. Chen, 1999: Air and soil frost indices in relation to plant mortality in elevated complex clear-felled terrain, Climate Research, Vol. 12, 65-75. 

Malmgren, B. A., A. Winter and D. Chen, 1998: El Nino-Southern oscillation andNorth Atlantic oscillation control of Caribbean climate, J. Climat, Vol. 11, No. 10, 2713-2717.

Nunez, M. and D. Chen, 1998: A Comparison of cloudless sky erythemal ultraviolet radiation at two sites in southwest Sweden, Int. J. Climatology, Vol. 18, 915-930.

Principal contractor 4

Linköping University, Sweden (LIU)

Linköping University, Sweden, has a rich and varied tradition of combining natural science and social science research on land and water, people and society, technology and the dynamics of society. Dr. Lindskog received his Ph. D-degree from the Department of Water and Environmental Studies, which is part of  The Tema Institute of Linköping University. This research institution therefore offers a particularly productive environment for inter-disciplinary research. The discipline Geography is integrated into the Department of Water and Environmental Studies of  The Tema Institute, which is an inter-disciplinary research and education institute of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. This research environment provides a unique combination of knowledge, experience and expertise of natural and social science research related to climate change. Dr Per Lindskog with colleagues are especially well-equipped for the task of dissecting the complex inter-relationships between the human drivers or causes and effects of climate change as well as their relationship to the physical drivers or causes and effects. Several papers have been written on these topics (among them Lindskog & Tengberg, 1994; Lindskog & Tengberg, 1995; Lindskog & Delaite, 1996; Lindskog & Watts, 1998). Research has also been carried out on the public's perception of the environment (Lindskog & Löfstedt, 1996). 

Selected relevant references:

P Lindskog & A Tengberg (1994) Land degradation, natural resources and local knowledge in the Sahel zone of Burkina Faso. GeoJournal, 33, 365-375

P. Lindskog & A. Tengberg (1995) Les causes physiques et humaines de l'érosion dans le Sahel. Proposition d'un modčle. Colloque du Réseau Erosion "Environnement Humain de l'Erosion", 20-22 September 1994, Paris: ORSTOM-Bondy; published in the Bulletin du Réseau Erosion no 15

P. Lindskog & R. Löfstedt (1996) Does the public's perception of their environment really matter in global environmental change studies? Examples from the First and the Third Worlds. 3rd HDP Global Environmental Change Symposium "Global Change, Local Challenge", Geneva, 20-22 September 1995, HDP Report no 8, 1996, pp 139-170

P Lindskog & Benoît Delaite (1996) Degrading land: An environmental history perspective of the Cape Verde Islands. Environment and History, 2, 271-290 P. Lindskog & R. Watts (1998) Towards a theory of the driving forces of land transformation - Application of a conceptual model. Paper presented at the International Geographical Congress, Commission on Critical Environments and Regions, The Hague 4-9 August 1996

P. Lindskog & A. Tengberg (1995) Les causes physiques et humaines de l'érosion dans le Sahel. Proposition d'un modčle. Colloque du Réseau Erosion "Environnement Humain de l'Erosion", 20-22 September 1994, Paris: ORSTOM-Bondy; published in the Bulletin du Réseau Erosion no 15

P. Lindskog & R. Löfstedt (1996) Does the public's perception of their environment really matter in global environmental change studies? Examples from the First and the Third Worlds. 3rd HDP Global Environmental Change Symposium "Global Change, Local Challenge", Geneva, 20-22 September 1995, HDP Report no 8, 1996, pp 139-170

P. Lindskog (1999) The RGS-IBG/Shell dispute and the wider world. Ethics, place and environment, 2, 2, 248-251

Principal contractor 5

Department of Meteorology

Kossuth Lajos University (KLTE)

KLTE was established in 1934. The head of the department is prof. dr. habil. Károly Tar. The staff of our department consist of: one professor, two assistant lecturers; assistant personnel: three technical co-workers. The research fields of our department are mainly:

Domains covered by KLTE lectures and seminars: General Meteorology; Climatology; Meteorological Instruments; Climate of Hungary; Atmospheric Energy Sources; Mathematical Statistics Informatics; Bioclimatology; Climatological Field Work; Pedology; Aerology; Agrometeorology; Interactions of Relief and Climate.

Károly Tar, born in Kunhegyes, Hungary on 27th October 1947, graduated Kossuth Lajos University in 1971 in the fields of mathematics and physics. Since graduation he has worked at the Department of Meteorology of the Kossuth University and in 1978 graduated the Eötvös University as a meteorologist. Dr habil. Károly Tar is a candidate of geography (CSc). Since 1997 he is professor at the Faculty of Science of the Eötvös University. Dr. habil. Károly Tar became a lecturer in 1978. In 1989 he was nominated to reader. Since 1991 Prof. Dr. habil. Károly Tar has been nominated head of the Department of Meteorology, Kossuth Lajos University. Prof. Dr. Károly Tar has educational tasks consisting of lectures on General Meteorology, Aerology, Aerological Resources, Bioclimatology, Agrometeorology, Physical and Regional Climatology and leading seminars on Mathematical Statistics and Meteorological Instruments. His research activities cover topics such as radiation input and modification of radiation at different surfaces; the effect of the significantly detected global warming upon statistical structure of wind field in the Carpathian Basin. Prof. Dr. Károly Tar has published 55 papers, 4 lecture notes and 3 books. 

Selected relevant references:

Tar, K. (1990): Statistical Investigation on the 130-year Time Series of precipitation in Debrecen. In: Climatic Change in the Historical and Instrumental Periods. Masaryk University-Brno. pp. 275-279.

Tar, K. (1991): The Concept and the Velocity- and Energy Distribution of Characteristic and Non-Characteristic Wind Directions. The International Journal of Ambient Energy. Vol. 12. no. 2.

Tar, K. (1993): Investigation of the Time Series of the Monthly Relative Sums of Precipitation. In: Early Meteorological Instrumental Records in Europe. Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Kraków. pp. 183-191.

Tar, K. (1993): Air Pollution: a Danger of Change in Climate. Bollettino Geofisico. Anno XVI, N.1. pp. 709-727.

Tar, K. (1996): Some characteristics of the statistical structure of the wind field over mountainous and plain regions. In: Proceedings of Seventeenth International Conference on Carpathian Meteorology (Visegrád, 14-18 October, 1996), pp. 33-40.

Tar, K. (1998): Alteration of the statistical structure of the wind field in Hungary in connection with the climatic change. 2nd European Conference on Applied Climatology, Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodinamics, Nr. 19, (CD, ISSN 1016-6254) Vienna, Austria.

Tar, K. (1998): Statistical characteristics of the wind field over Hungary, in connection with the global warming. Scientific Days of Meteorology, Budapest, 1997, In: The climate change and its consequences. Issue of the Hungarian Meteorological Service. pp. 249-258. (in Hungarian)

Borbély-Kiss, I. - E. Koltay - Gy. Szabó - L. Bozó - K. Tar (1999): Composition and sources of urban and rural atmospheric aerosol in Eastern Hungary. Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol. 30, No.3, pp. 369-391.

Principal contractor 6

Department of Climatology and Landscape Ecology

József Attila University (JATE)

JATE was established as Department of Climatology in 1952 at József Attila University. In 1997 became the Department of Climatology and Landscape Ecology under the leadership of professor Ilona Bárány-Kevei. Since 1997 the traditional climatological profile of the department has been extended towards new research directions (landscape ecology). The staff of our department is as follows: one professor (retired), two associate professors, one senior lecturer, two assistant lecturers; assistant personnel: two technical co-workers.

The research fields of our department consist of:

Domains covered by JATE lectures: Astronomical Geography; Atmosphere and Biosphere; Bioclimatology; Biogeography; Cartography; Climatological Field Work Climatological - Geographical Relations of Inner-Asia; Climatological Statistics; Climatology and Microclimatology; Climate of Hungary; Computational Geography; Digital Cartography; Enviromental Problems of the Atmosphere; General; Climatology; History of Cartography; Types of karstic Lands ; Karstgeoecology Landscape Ecology; Landscape-planning; Local and Microclimates; Long-range Weather Forecast; Aviation Meteorology; Paleoclimatology; Physical Climatology; Planetology; Seminar for Making Dissertations; History of Geography.

Laszlo Makra born on June 5th 1952 at Siklós, Hungary has gratuated József Attila University in 1976 in the fields of mathematics and geography. Since 1976 he is working at the Department of Climatology and Landscape Ecology, József Attila University, Szeged. His PhD-dissertation has been made in 1995. Prof. Dr. Makra is giving lectures on General Meteorology, Physical and Regional Climatology, Climate of Hungary, furthermore to hold seminars on Meteorological Instruments and Climatological Statistics. He leads a special course regarding climatological-geographical relations for inner-Asia. Prof. Dr. Makra is also performing instrumental measurements to characterize microclimates. Prof. Dr. Makra has research tasks regarding global sea-level pressure teleconnections, regional background aerosol researches, mesoscale air pollution researches and renewing sources of energy in the Hungarian Great Plain with special interest to radiation and wind energy. Prof. Dr. Makra has been involved in instrumental field activities in Northwestern China (1990, 1994), in Indonesia (1996) and in Brasil (1998) in the framework of regional background aerosol studies. Prof. Dr. Makra has attended several conferences, in Poland, Croatia, Austria and USA and has published 83 articles, three lecture notes and one book. 

Selected relevant references:

Makra, L., 1980: Large Scale Weather Situations in Hungary and the Periodical Components of their Time Array. Acta Clim. Univ. Szegediensis, Tom. XVI/XVII., Fasc. 1-4., 19-43.

Makra, L., 1983: Contemporaneous categories of temperature and precipitation anomalies and some of their statistical characteristics in Hungary. Id=F5j=E1r=E1s, 87., 214-220.

Palot=E1s, J. and Makra, L., 1985: Relationship of the Wheat-Production to the Oecological Potential in the Southern Plain of Hungary. Acta Clim. Univ. Szegediensis, Tom. XVIII-XX., Fasc. 1-4., 53-64.

Makra, L., Kiss, =C1. and Palot=E1s, J., 1985: The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Drought in the Southern Part of the Great Hungarian Plain. Acta Clim. Univ. Szegediensis, Tom. XVIII-XX., Fasc. 1-4., 65-85.

Makra, L., Kiss, =C1. and Abonyin=E9 Palot=E1s, J., 1986: Climatological and Soil Moisture Budget Components of Drought in the Southern Hungarian Plain with Implications to Agriculture (in Hungarian). Alf=F6ldi Tanulm=E1nyok, X., 99-114.

Kopp=E1ny, G. =E9s Makra, L., 1995: Persistence probability of the drought index made by P=E1lfai for five regions of the Hungarian Great Plain. Acta Clim. Univ. Szegediensis, Tom. 28-29., 53-61.

Makra, L. and Stach=F3, L., 1999: Optimal selection of the stations describing the global sea level pressure field. Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Foila Geographica Physica, 3, 483-494.

Horv=E1th, Sz., Makra, L. and Mika, J., 1999: Spatial and temporal variations of the Palmer drought severity index in South-East Hungary. Acta Universitatis Szegediensis. Pars Climatologica Scientiarum Naturalium, Tom. 32-33, 29-49.

Makra, L., Tar, K. and Horv=E1th, Sz., 2000: Some statistical characteristics of the wind energy over the Great Hungarian Plain. International Journal of Ambient Energy. vol. 21, no. 2, (to be published in April, 2000.)

Makra, L., 1998: Mean Sea Level Teleconnections on the Northern Hemisphere and the Earth. Climate and Environmental Change. International Geographical Union, Commission on Climatology. Proceedings 69-72. Evora, Portugal. 24-30th August 1998.

Associated contractor 7

Alfold Institute

Balint Csatari born on 13th August 1949,  has gratuated Faculty of Geography, University of Szeged in 1973. He is the Director-regional of the Great Hungarian Plain Research Institute of Centre for Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Prof. Balint Csatari is a member of many professional bodies such as: 

Prof. Csatari  has 20 year of teaching activity on graduate, post-graduate and PhD programmes at the University of Szeged giving lectures and carying out resarch activities on rural and regional geography. He has carried out research on Hungarian regional development and policies, rural geography and development, Geographical Information System. Prof. Csatari has participated in joint international research teams to study regional development processes and policy design (Poland, 1986), adaptively of rural society in Finland and Sweden (1989),  the transformation of rural and agrarian areas in Eastern and Central Europe (CNRS Paris, European Commission, 1995–1997), the regional transformation in Poland and in Hungary (Academic Project, 1990 –98), the new elements of rural society and settlements in Eastern and Central Europe (The project of  Japan Scientific and Toyota Foundations 1996-98), the role of micro regions in Hungarian regional development (Phare, 1992–1994). Prof. Csatari is the author, editor and co-author of 17 books and 200 papers in Hungarian and foreign languages.

Selected relevant references:

The Great Hungarian Plain and the new perspectives of regional development of Europe, Tér és társadalom, 1998. 4. pp. 1 –19.

Hidden dimensions of Hungarian rural transformation, Regional Studies Volume special, Bayreuth, 1999. pp. 134 –149.

General transformation and main types of Hungarian micro regions, MTA RRK- PHARE, Kecskemét, 1996. p. 40.

B. Csatári - J. Rakonczai 1996.: The Great Hungarian Plain, lowland of Central Europe and its settlements, Supplement of National Report of Republic Hungary for the UN Conference of Human Settlements (Habitat II.), Nagyalföld Alapítvány, Békéscsaba, p. 16.

Systemic Transformation of Rural Societies of East Central Europe, Yearbook of Chiba University, Japan, 1995, pp. 20 24.

A special regional environmental-social conflicts on the Great Hungarian Plain, Geograhica Polonica, 64. 1994. pp. 167- 177. Warsawa,

Spatial connections of rural settlements, In.: E. OROSZ ed.: Spatial organization and regional development, Discussion papers, Centre for Regional Studies, Pécs pp.237-251.

Problems of Hungarian Scattered Farms, (ed.) 1989, p 195.

B. CSATÁRI - Gy. ENYEDI 1986: The formation of new, clustered, rural settlements in Hungary In.:Gy. ENYEDI - J. VELDMAN Eds.: Rural Development Issues in Industrialized Countries, Centre for Regional Studies Pécs pp.96-105.

C6. Economic development and scientific and technological prospects

C6.1 Exploitation

The research activities of CLIVRE will provide improved capability for diagnosis and prediction of climate driven environmental change in a sustainable development perspective for sensitive areas and an improved scientific knowledge of people's perception and understanding of these processes and their driving forces which will further facilitate to create such policies related to climate changes that will be accepted by the public. Improvements in this scientific knowledge is a precondition in order to succeed to mitigate the consequences of the human driving forces upon climate.. The results will be used by participating institutes, policy makers, end-users from insurence companies, agriculture, transport and helth and general public.

C.6.2 Strategic impact

C6.3. Dissemination

CLIVRE will provide public reports with the scientific results for scientist and general public and recommendation for policy makers. A CLIVRE project website will be build and ongoing activities as well as final results will be presented there. The coupled climate driven environmental change/socio-economical indices data base will be made available on the website.

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